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WASTE MANAGEMENT AND RECYCLING AT THE GRASSROOTS LEVEL / JAKARTA BAY-INDONESIA

By: Yoslan Nur

Key words: community development, coral reefs, social empowerment.

DIMENSION AND GEOGRAPHIC SITUATION

Jakarta Bay is located in the north of Jakarta. It is a rather shallow bay (averagedepth 15 m) covering an area of about 514 km2. The bay receives freshwater runoff from 13 rivers which cross the Jakarta Metropolitan Area where around 20 million people live. Kepulauan Seribu (ThousandIslands) is an archipelago within the bay which consist of 108 small islands, forming a chain of offshore islands stretching along some 80km in a NW - SE direction and 30 km from west to east. The islands are typically small (less than 10 ha on average) and reach an elevation of generally less than 3 m above sea level. With the expansion of theJakarta Metropolitan Area during the second half of this century, theJakarta Bay and Kepulauan Seribu environment has been increasingly affected by a range of human and natural impacts, including pollution, natural ecosystem transformation and non sustainable coastal resource exploitation. Kepulauan Seribu are a special case both in terms of environment and development. They are ecologically fragile and vulnerable, 3 out of 108 islands of Kepulauan Seribu have disappearedin the last 15 years. Their small size, limited resources, geographic dispersion and isolation from markets, place them at a disadvantage economically and prevent economies of scale.

DESCRIPTION

Since 1985, UNESCO, in collaboration with National and International Scientific institutes has been organising scientific campaigns for the collection of data on thestatus of coral reefs in Kepulauan Seribu. Ten years later, in 1995,UNESCO organised the second workshop to re-evaluate the condition ofthe coral reef in this archipelago. Following UNESCO-sponsored fieldw orkshops in 1985 and 1995, Jakarta Bay and Kepulauan Seribu have become the subject of a pilot project initiated in 1996, by the Coastal Regions and Small Islands Unit (CSI).The pilot project attempts to deal with the problems created by atropical coastal mega-city.

Efforts to reduce pressure on Jakarta Bay andKepulauan Seribu require immediate actions in two directions: (1)improvement in Jakarta's waste management and recycling in order toreduce the waste that flows from the city to the sea, and (2)socio-economic sustainable development of the local communities living on the islands and along Jakarta Bay.

Two aspects of the waste management project are:

(a) Composting of organic waste in Bintaro'straditional market. In cooperation with Yayasan Kirai Indonesia/NGO (from September 1997), wise waste management is being experimented with by making use of market organic waste. Training courses for organic matter recycling were organized on the market place. Two persons were responsible for collecting and subsequently composting the organicwaste. Then, using the "heap method", recycling of market organic waste began. At the end of the two months' project, they were able to achievea 30% reduction in their total waste. Compost has provided the local vendors with an income.

(b) Paper recycling and composting. Students of the Senior Public High School No. 34 in North Jakarta were trained tor recycle old paper. Through the 'Students Science Club' they now regularly produce very decorative stationary, which they sell to the public. They also produce many other schools, which are interested in following their example and they are willing to teach other groups.This idea of a 'recycling programme for schools' is a good way toeducate students to adopt 'wise attitudes' in relation to environmental problems.

One activity of the socio-economic sustainable development project was:
A social empowerment project in Kamal Muara (conducted by Social and Human Science Sector of UNESCO). Like the inhabitants of Kepulauan Seribu, most residents of Kamal Muara live below the poverty line. The goal of the project is therefore to encourage initiatives aimed at improving the quality of life andpromoting the exercise of citizen participation in urban governance.High priority has been given to ensure project sustainability and themultiplier effect. Two Indonesian NGOs, Bina Swadaya and Yayasan KiraiIndonesia, are now facilitating the implementation of follow-up activities. Bina Swadaya focuses on community self- governance andself-organization, skill training, small income generation and credit union activities. Yayasan Kirai concentrates its efforts on the improvement of the urban environment of Kamal Muara, through theorganization by the community itself of garbage collection, recycling and composting.

DISCUSSION

PARTICIPATORY PROCESS:

In association with local NGOs, waste management projects throughout the Jakarta area were initiated at a grass-root level. The activities consist of training in new waste practices in order to provide economic benefits to the participants. Recycling of organic matter forms the basis of most community waste management initiatives; training in composting with and without the use of worms meant that organic recycling could be implemented at both household and market levels.

CAPACITY BUILDING AND INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING:

After some training in paper recycling, composting, and environmental education, the people of Banjarsari, Cilandak, South Jakarta, were encouraged to set up an Environmental Committee whose aim is the protection of the environment. A small recycling centre was created where the youth carry out: paper recycling, composting with worms and planting medicinal herbs, using the compost produced. Training for women's activities was also organised in situ for example making cottonbags out of flour sacking. The Centre is also used as a 'show room' for the products (recycling paper product, compost, cotton bags etc) to be sold to the public. So far the project is running smoothly.

SUSTAINABILITY:

A combination of scientific studies, waste management initiatives, training and educational programmes as well as the identification of alternative income generating activities should allow for long term sustainable development whilst providing immediate benefit for the local communities.

TRANSFERABILITY:

Some easily transferable activities are: composting market organic waste; paper recycling andcomposting; and social empowerment.

GENDER ISSUES:

In Kepulauan Seribu, the women's role is limited to domestic work or to help their husband. Their economic role needs to be improved. In order to reduce the frequency of destructive fishing practices, alternative incomes were proposed both for fishermen and for their wives. In Pari Island, seaweed cultivation has been chosen as an option to promote alternative income generation.This project has been initiated by LIPI (Indonesia Research Institute) and has already proved to be a success as there is a high national and international demand for seaweed. Duck farming was determined as asuitable occupation for women. It was launched (introduction of 300 ducks, involving 50 families) and a manual on duck farming techniques has been prepared and distributed to local communities during atraining course held in the island in 11 June 1998.

ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS:

To improve environmental awareness among young people living both in Jakarta and on the islands of Kepulauan Seribu, environmental education projects and public awareness campaigns are undertaken, in the knowledge that better understanding of the environment will lead to its protection. The target groups for education and training are: young people in elementary schools, Boy Scouts and Girl Guides. Also, teachers of Pulau Seribu will be offered the possibility of attending an in-service workshop and will subsequently transmit environmental awareness to their students in the islands.

DOCUMENTATION:

The preparation and implementation of the pilot project has been fully documented.

EVALUATION:

Waste management and composting activity in Jakarta Bay Pilot Project was successful. The issue that emerged after evaluation of these activities is the need to expand the programme beyond a grassroots level and develop perception among a wider community concerning solid waste as an economic resource. The products of paper recycling activities require improved of marketing.The duck farming project was not very appropriate because ducks need marshland and fresh water, which are scarce in the small islands like Kepualaun Seribu. Other economic activities have to be found as an income generation alternative. The social empowerment in Kalam Muarawill be continued.

To ensure the continuity of the ongoing pilot project, UNESCO is preparing a project for the integrated environmental development of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area. Community-based development, social empowerment and poverty alleviation in the context of coastal environment development are still the core of UNESCO-CSIactivities. See the second part of our contribution (A regional approach to environmental quality in a coastal mega-city / Jakarta-Indonesia).




1 komentar:

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